When we say new media, we always think of the newer technologies. The sense of “new” in new media refers to “the most recent”. The term “new media” comes with claims and hope that they will deliver increased productivity, educational opportunity and open up new creative and communicative horizons. So, new media can also refer to the following:
- New textual experiences: new kinds of genre, textual form, entertainment, pleasure, and patterns of media consumption.
- New way of representing the world: offer new representational possibilities and experiences such as in immersive virtual environment.
- New relationship between subjects (users and consumers) and media technologies.
- New experiences of the relationship between embodiment, identity and community.
- New patterns of organization and production.
The new media also refers to the intensity of change if we see it in the sense of functions. From 1980s, the world of media and communication began to look different and this difference was not limited to any one sector even though the timing of changes may be different from medium to medium. It involves technological, institutional, and cultural changes or development. According to Lister et. al (2003), the changes of that media are associated as following:
- A shift from modernity to post-modernity: a contested but widely subscribed attempt to characterise deep and structural changes in societies and economies with correlative cultural changes.
- Intensifying process of globalization: a dissolving of national states and boundaries in terms of trade, corporate organization, customs and cultures, identities and beliefs in which new media have been seen as a contributory element.
- A replacement of an industrial age of manufacturing by a “post-industrial” information age: a shift in employment, skill, investment and profit in the production of material goods to services and information industries.
- A decentring of established and centralized geo-political orders: the weakening of mechanisms of power and control that is facilitated by the dispersed, boundary-transgressing, networks of new communication media.
New media are often called multimedia—and also digital media—where in involves the integration of telecommunication, data communication and mass communication in a single medium. The integration can take place at one of the following levels:
- Infrastructure – such as combining the different transmission links and equipment for telephone and computer (data) communication.
- Transportation – such as Internet telephony and web TV riding on cable and satellite television.
- Management – for example a cable company that exploits telephone lines and a telephone company that exploits cable television
- Services – the combination of information and communication services on the Internet.
- Types of data – putting together sounds, data, text, and images.
Generally, new media technology refers to any type of application meant to transfer information via digital techniques, computerized systems, or data networks. First established in the 20th century, new media technology is most readily associated with information transfers meant to be manipulated in some way. Most forms of this technology are interactive and contain compressed data designed to be accessed in a variety of markets. The most prevalent examples of new media technologies include Internet-based concepts like websites or digital mediums such as CD-ROMs, and DVDs.